Anneka is only one year old, but she is bonding with me.  She stares hard at my face, makes eye contact, holds it, then reaches out, touches my nose, my eyes, my ears, scanning each of my features, fixing them in her memory.   Then later when she hears my voice she looks round until she finds the face and smiles.   It seems to me she is not just recognising, she is bonding. 

In the fusiform gyrus, deep in the inferior temporal lobe of the brain, there is a collection of neurones that respond to specific faces.  Damage to this area by a tumour or a stroke leads to the neurological condition, known as proposagnosia – absence of face recognition.  The same region also serves place recognition.  It responds to the features of particular cars in car enthusiasts like Rowan Atkinson, and to characteristics of birds in bird watchers like Simon Barnes.  Indeed Barnes writes about having a giss for a bird, a facility for identification from minimal cues.   If Anneka is played a recording of birdsong, she immediately looks out of the window to see the bird.  Is this the beginnings of giss? 

So is the fusiform gyrus, the site for pattern recognition?  And do people develop a facility for better recognition of patterns that are familiar and interest them, like cars, bird or traction engines?   That would make sense.  After all, Chinese people are better at recognising Chinese faces and find Europeans look very similar.  

But recognition is not the same as familiarity.  The latter is more a function of the amygdala and its emotional connections to the orbitofrontal cortex.   You don’t need recognition in order to form an emotional connection. People with proposagnosia are not autistic.  Some with proposagnosia greet everybody with great familiarity as if every face was a friend.   So do minor forms of proposagnosia lead to indiscriminate affection and intimacy, like the potion poured into Titania’s ear.  Almost anyone will do, even one with the head of a donkey.  Is promiscuity based on a neurological deficit of character recognition? 

Bonding is more enduring than emotional connection.  It requires a specificity, a recognition that is  consolidated by repetition.  Every time you see that person, go to that place, hear that song, a charge of emotion fixes the connection deeper into the memory, like paths through the forest.  It takes time to get to know a person, to trust the consistency of the interaction, to establish that  emotional railroad that makes relationships meaningful.   And once that bond has been produced, it is impossible to sever.  Reinforced by contact, it only declines by degrees when lack of contact and/or disillusion no longer sparks the memory.

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